What are the benefits and dangers of rock climbing? What are the tips and equipment for rock climbing?

What are the benefits and dangers of rock climbing? What are the tips and equipment for rock climbing?

Rock climbing is a very exciting sport. You must be prepared before rock climbing. Some rock climbing equipment is very important. Professional rock climbing equipment such as main ropes, safety belts, iron locks, protectors, web straps, helmets, and rock climbing shoes are necessary for rock climbing. The key points for using each equipment are different, and the equipment for indoor rock climbing and outdoor rock climbing are also different. Let’s take a look at the relevant knowledge about rock climbing.

1. Introduction to Rock Climbing

What kind of sport is rock climbing?

Rock climbing is a popular sport that integrates fitness, entertainment and competition. It requires athletes to have comprehensive physical fitness, possess bravery, tenacity and perseverance, and be able to stretch easily and accurately on rock walls of various heights and angles, and accurately complete thrilling actions such as leaping, turning, jumping, and pull-ups. It gives people a beautiful and thrilling enjoyment, so rock climbing is also called "ballet on the rock wall".

What are the types of rock climbing?

According to the climbing location, it is divided into natural rock wall climbing and artificial rock wall climbing; according to the climbing form, it is divided into free climbing, equipment climbing, top rope climbing, and pioneer climbing; according to the competition, it is divided into difficulty rock climbing, speed climbing, and bouldering competition; according to the nature of the competition, it is divided into Speed climbing, crux climbing, boulder climbing and more.

Benefits and Dangers of Rock Climbing

1. Benefits

Rock climbing is a sport suitable for physical exercise. When rock climbing, you need to use the strength of your hands and feet, resist gravity, and bear your own gravity, which is good for physical exercise. In addition to physical strength, rock climbing also requires physical coordination and flexibility. Overseas, some doctors use rock climbing to correct children's muscle development, eyes, and body coordination.

2. Harm

Freehand rock climbing is rock climbing without auxiliary climbing tools and protective measures. Therefore, it is extremely dangerous and ranks among the top ten dangerous sports in the world. In addition, when outdoor rock climbing encounters mountain disasters caused by bad weather, many people are unable to cope with this unexpected situation.

rock climbing difficulty level

Level 5.0-5.7: Novice, entry level is easy for experienced climbers.

Level 5.8-5.9: It requires mastering certain rock climbing techniques and techniques. It is not very difficult for experienced rock climbers and can handle it with ease.

Level 5.10: The highest level that ordinary amateur rock climbing enthusiasts can achieve. It requires climbers to master and use various climbing techniques and skills proficiently.

5.10-5.11 is a bottleneck that is difficult for amateurs to break through. Some people may have been unable to break through the four difficulties of 5.10.

Level 5.11-5.15c: Expert field, which requires very high talent and a lot of hard training to achieve.

2. Rock Climbing Skills and Training

Basics of Rock Climbing

Grasp: Grasp the raised parts of the rock with your hands.

Picking: Picking the corners, gaps and edges of rocks with your hands.

Pull: On the premise of grasping the strong fulcrum at the front and top, the forearm is attached to the rock wall, grabbing the stone gap or other terrain, and using the arm and forearm to move the body upward or left and right.

Pushing: Using the sides, rocks or objects below, and the power of the arms to move the body.

Zhang: Put your hand into the gap, flex and open your palm or fingers, and use it to grab the gap in the rock as a fulcrum to move your body.

Pedaling: Use the pedaling force of the inside of the forefoot or toes to support the body and reduce the burden on the upper limbs.

Cross: Use your own flexibility to avoid difficult points to find favorable support points.

Hanging: Hang on the rock with your toes or heels to maintain your balance and move your body.

Stepping: Use the front of the foot to step down on the larger fulcrum to reduce the burden on the upper limbs and move the body.

3. Rock Climbing Skills

1. Technique

When holding the rock point with your hands, your arms should be as straight as possible. After the arm is straightened, the bones are stressed and the muscles can relax, saving arm strength. When your forearms are swollen, you can hang your arms to allow blood to flow back, and shake your hands to relax your muscles. Try not to bend your arms. When you bend your arms, your muscles are contracting, which consumes a lot of energy. If you can do an L shape, don't do an L shape. Of course, sometimes there is no way to lock it, and it is not necessary for the general beginner route.

2, leg method

You should use your toes, not the balls of your feet. When stepping on the rock, your heels should be kept higher than your toes to generate force. According to different situations, it is divided into forward pedaling and side pedaling (inside and outside). Front pedaling is mostly used for climbing up straight walls, while side pedaling is mostly used for climbing upwards at an angle of elevation and moving laterally.

Rock climbing training methods

1. Strength training

Strength is a form of physical fitness of the human body, and strength training is a method of exercise that improves the strength, endurance and shape of individual muscles and entire muscle groups through rhythmic exercises for a certain number of times or groups. Functional strength training proposed abroad is a good training method. It mainly refers to the overall working ability and efficiency of the body muscles, emphasizing the stabilizing effect of spinal strength. Traditional strength training focuses more on isolated muscles or muscle groups. As strength increases, muscle size also increases. However, among rock climbing enthusiasts, when doing chest strength training, they do not want to increase the size of the chest muscles, because it will affect the execution of many rock climbing technical movements, so functional strength training can get better results.

2. Speed training

Movement speed is mainly determined by reducing external natural resistance, external assist methods, and changes in load during training. Third, displacement velocity refers to the time it takes for the human body to travel a certain distance. Due to the longitudinal displacement movement of speed rock climbing, a distance of 15m must be completed in a short time and the intensity is relatively high. Therefore, 85% to 95% of the load intensity is used for training in training. The number of times should not be too many. At the same time, it is necessary to develop the strength of the upper and lower limbs. For explosive power, you can practice on the track in sections.

3. Endurance training

Endurance quality refers to the ability of an organism to sustain exercise for an extended period of time. It can be divided into muscular endurance and cardiovascular endurance. In the three competitions of rock climbing (rock climbing, difficulty, speed), there is endurance training. For example, in a rock climbing competition, a route must be tried again and again within a specified time. It is undoubtedly a challenge to the muscle's ability to work for a long time and to the cardiovascular absorption, transportation and utilization of oxygen. But before training for endurance, enthusiasts must have their endurance assessed. In training, you can adopt a "timed and fixed-point" training method, such as 4-minute climbing training in the bouldering area. The coach will designate the rock points, and the enthusiasts will perform 4-minute climbing training. At the same time, in order to make exercise more interesting for enthusiasts, they can also do Fatlet running.

4. Coordination training

Coordination ability refers to the coordinated cooperation and interactive influence of different systems, organs, and parts of the body under the control of the central nervous system, making the performance of movement techniques coherent, reasonable, and efficient. Coordination quality is an important foundation for various other basic movements, and can also reduce the probability of injury for enthusiasts. Neural coordination is the internal form of coordination quality and the most important coordination, while the performance of movement technology is the external manifestation of internal neural coordination. The coordination of human movement mainly consists of reaction ability, balance ability, spatial orientation ability, rhythm ability, selection ability, adaptability and perception ability. In rock climbing competitions, some balance routes particularly require coordination of movements, and a sense of spatial orientation is also required when performing jumping movements to accurately grasp the rock point.

rock climbing equipment

Basic rock climbing equipment

Main rope: The main rope can be divided into dynamic rope and static rope, and their elasticity is different. The elastic coefficient of the power rope is 6% to 8%. A 100-meter power rope can extend 6 to 8 meters when the force is 80KG. In this way, the climber will get a buffer when falling off and reduce the momentum. Power ropes are the main equipment for various rock climbing activities. Static ropes have very little ductility and an elasticity of about 2%. They are generally used for descending and caving.

Safety belt: The safety belt is worn on the climber and carries the weight and impact caused by the climber falling off or descending. The waist belt of the seat belt is the force-bearing part, while the remaining leg straps are designed for comfort and convenience.

Iron lock: An iron lock is a metal ring that can be opened and closed freely, connecting various protective devices and equipment together.

Protector: When the main rope passes through the protector in the correct way, its special structure can increase the friction, so that the braking end of the main rope only needs a smaller grip force to control the greater weight of the stressed end. The figure-8 protector was most commonly used in the past, but it would cause the main rope to twist and twist repeatedly. ATC has solved this problem better.

Flat straps: When erecting fixed protection points, flat straps may be used to connect two or more temporary protection points. At this time, attention must be paid to the connection method of the flat straps to distinguish the main stress point and the backup stress point; a temporary protection must also be ensured When a point fails, it will not impact other protection points and will not affect the overall protection effect.

Quick hook: The quick hook is used as a temporary protection point in pioneer climbing or traditional climbing routes. At this time, the buckling method of the main rope and the direction of the quick hook opening are very important. The main rope is required to pass between the quickdraw and the rock wall and out from the outside, which means that the climber's end of the rope is on the outside; if the route has a lateral direction, the iron lock door at the entry end of the quickdraw should be oriented towards the route. In the opposite direction, for example, if the route is from left to right, the opening of the iron lock must face left. This will prevent the rope from pressing open the iron lock door when it falls off.

Rock plug: The shape and size of the mechanical plug can be adjusted. It enters the rock crevice in a contracted state and can be stuck after popping open. It is easy to operate and has a wide range of applications. It is an excellent choice for climbing traditional routes.

Familiarity with the diameters and applicable ranges of various types of rock plugs will greatly increase the speed of operation. If necessary, the rock plug rods can be marked.

Piton nails: provide another way to establish a protection point; one end is wedge-shaped, which is wedged into the rock crevice to provide protection, and the other end is ring-shaped, which can be connected to an iron lock or flat strap. Be reminded that two pitons driven into the same rock crevice may pry open the rock.

Expansion nails: Using an impact drill and hammer, expansion nails can be driven into the entire rock, and with the addition of hanging pieces, they become a very stable protection point.

Hanging piece: One side is fixed on the rock wall through expansion nails or screws, and the other side can be buckled into an iron lock or quick release, or connected to a flat strap; it is an important part of the protection point. . Magnesium powder bag auxiliary equipment, magnesium powder can absorb sweat on the hands and moisture on the surface of the rock wall, increasing friction.

Bouldering mat: A means of protection in bouldering, providing cushioning and shock absorption. Inside a bouldering mat are two or more layers of sponge of different textures. The top is a hard closed sponge, and the bottom is a thicker soft open sponge. Soft sponges cause the person who falls off to sink instead of dispersing the pressure, which can easily bruise the wrists and ankles, so bouldering mats should be placed with a hard sponge layer upward.

Helmet: Effectively prevents head injuries caused by falling rocks and abnormal falling postures. The helmet must be worn upright to protect the forehead, back of the head and sides. Never look up or hold your head with your hands when a rockfall occurs. Let your helmet take effect when there is nowhere to hide.

Rock climbing shoes: The soles are made of special rubber, which greatly increases friction. Going from regular shoes to climbing shoes is an important change to improving your climbing skills.

Indoor rock climbing equipment

1. Rock climbing gyms usually provide artificial rock walls, professional climbing ropes, and belts (can withstand 2 tons of weight);

2. A pair of rock climbing shoes that fit well and are sturdy;

3. Professionals explain rock climbing methods and techniques;

4. Complete safety measures;

5. Fitness equipment, locker rooms, bathrooms and other facilities.

Outdoor climbing equipment

Personal equipment includes safety belts, climbing shoes, safety helmets, powder bags and appropriate clothing; protective equipment includes climbing ropes, safety carabiners, ascenders, descenders, quickdraws, rope sets, rock cones, rock plugs, and mechanical plugs. etc.

4. Safety precautions for rock climbing

Rock Climbing Safety Precautions

1. Change into appropriate clothes before rock climbing. Rock climbing is a relatively active activity, and a good set of clothes is very necessary.

2. Move your joints, relax your muscles, adjust your mind, and keep yourself in a flexible state.

3. You must choose a rock climbing route before climbing. Rock paths with different heights and angles, and rock holes in different positions and sizes will have different levels of difficulty.

4. When climbing, you need to coordinate your limbs and keep three points firmly attached to the rock wall so that the center of gravity of the body falls on the soles of your feet to reduce the burden on your fingers, arms and wrists.

How long does it take to rock climb?

You should be able to climb a 10-meter simple route in 5 minutes. Beginners should look at their physical fitness. Unless they are particularly fit, they usually won’t have the energy to continue climbing after a few more climbs.

Who is not suitable for rock climbing?

1. Joint diseases: When climbing, the extra load on the knee joint will aggravate cartilage wear, bone damage, joint swelling, pain and other uncomfortable symptoms.

2. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases: Rock climbing is a sport that consumes a lot of oxygen and consumes a lot of physical energy. Rock climbing in the elderly will increase the load on the heart and easily induce diseases;

3. Chronic diseases: hypertension, kidney disease, blood disease, chronic bronchitis, gout.

5. China’s Top Ten Rock Climbing Holy Lands

1. Mt. Badai

The Batai Mountain Via Lada is the highest railway rock climbing route in the country. It is located on the inner cliff of Zhujianfeng in the Batai Mountain, with an altitude of about 2,200 meters. Rock climbing lines are divided into experience lines and challenge lines. The experience line is 85 meters long and has a maximum height of 120 meters from the bottom of the cliff. The total length of the challenge line is 403 meters, and the maximum height of the line from the bottom of the cliff is 260 meters. For ordinary tourists, it usually takes 25 minutes to pass the experience line and 1 hour to pass the entire line.

2. Nanjiang Grand Canyon

Nanjiang Grand Canyon is located in Kaiyang County, 54 kilometers away from Guiyang City. The Grand Canyon is more than 40 kilometers long and is famous for its strange peaks, dangerous shoals and cliffs. If you stand on the top of the peak and have a bird's eye view of the canyon, the stream will split the green mountains on both sides like a sharp axe, and it will be as majestic as a rainbow. Nanjiang Grand Canyon has added a variety of "new ways to play". Guiyang City's first via ferrata rock climbing line was built and put into use in the canyon. This line is located at the bell mouth of the Nanjiang Grand Canyon, with a total length of more than 300 meters and a height difference of about 50 meters. It is the fourth via ferrata climbing line in Guizhou Province.

3. Chunqiu Village

The Chunqiu Village via ferrata experience site is located in the middle of the steepest cliff of Wangyue Mountain opposite Chunqiu Village. It is about 150 meters vertically above the ground. The safety steel cable is fixed in the middle of the cliff. It is frightening to see it from a distance. The length of the experience is about 200 meters. An experienced person can walk the entire distance in 15 minutes, and an experienced person can generally complete the experience in 45 minutes.

6. What are the rock climbing competitions?

There are Beijing National Rock Climbing Championships, National College Student Rock Climbing Championships, Yanxi National Rock Climbing Championships, Beijing National Rock Climbing Youth Championships, Beijing National Rock Climbing Youth Championships, etc.

7. Rock climbing film documentaries

1. Freehand rock climbing

This is a stunning documentary and a truly world-class thrill. The filmmakers captured every crucial moment of Honnold's climb. Honnold emerges as a distinctly American figure, forced to solve elusive challenges rather than dwell on the reasons for not moving forward. "Free Climbing" provides every viewer with empathy, beautiful scenery and a lot of adrenaline for 100 nerve-wracking minutes.

2. Climb Mount Meru

The film uses mountaineer and author Jon Krakauer to explain to non-climbers/mountainers what makes this challenge special: Meru is the anti-Everest. It has witnessed more attempts and failures than any other peak in the Himalayas. Compared with Mount Meru, climbing Mount Everest is just a walk; it is equivalent to putting Yosemite's El Capitan more than 4,000 meters high in the absence of oxygen, ice and snow, and harsh climate. In one word: difficult.

8. Who are the famous rock climbers?

1. Alex Honnold

The world's top rock climber and the first person to climb without any protection. In 2008, he conquered Yuehua Buttress and Half Dome using unprotected climbing. In 2012, he took 18 hours and 50 minutes to continuously challenge the three largest rock walls in the national park, Mount Watkins, El Capitan, and Half Dome, becoming the only person in the world known to climb Yosemite National Park in the United States with bare hands. of the park's three most famous peaks.

2. Adan Onda

Czech rock climbing genius Adan Onda is one of the best rock climbers in the world. He has completed the world's first 9c route "Silence", as well as the ultra-difficult Change (5.15c/9b+), Dawn Wall (5.14d), and currently the world's most difficult boulder route difficulty V16, as well as 6 V15s, etc.

3. Dean Porter

A well-known rock climber and mountaineer, he was awarded the title of National Geographic Magazine’s 2009 Adventurer of the Year. In 2002, he climbed the 1,005-meter Emirates Peak and set a world record for the shortest time for a two-person team to climb 2 hours, 36 minutes and 45 seconds.

4. Dan Osman

A legend in the rock climbing world and a top rock climber, he set three new world records for free fall. He pioneered some difficult climbing routes at Cave Rock in Nevada, USA, in the early 1990s.